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WORD OF GOD
Victor M. Eskew
A. The Septuagint Version was translated from the mid-third century B.C. to 132 B.C.
B. During this time period, there were other religious books that were being published also.
1. These books were not inspired, but some were included in the Septuagint.
a. Some believe the Alexandrian Jews believed them to be inspired. Thus, included them.
b. Others say they were included because they important to the spiritual life of the Jews.
2. These books are referred to as The Apocrypha.
C. Today, the Catholic Church accepts some of the Apocryphal books as part of the canon of Scripture. Almost all other religious groups reject the Apocrypha as being authoritative.
D. In this lesson, we want to examine the Apocrypha.
I. THE APOCRYPHRAL BOOKS
II. DEFINITION OF APOCRYPHA
III. FACTS ABOUT THE APOCRYPHA
IV. WHY THE APOCYRPHA HAS BEEN EXCLUDED FROM THE CANON
A. Not one of the Apocryphal books claims inspiration.
B. None was acknowledged as Scriptures by the Jews.
C. They were never acknowledged as Scriptures by Jesus.
D. Most of the “Church Fathers” reject the Apocrypha as being inspired.
E. They contain statements that contradict themselves (Ex., in two books of Maccabees, Antiochus Epiphanes is made to die three different deaths).
F. Some of the teachings contradict Biblical teachings (Ex., sinless perfection, justification for suicide, and justification for lying, and magical incantations).
G. They contain offensive language (…and the birth of a daughter is a loss, Ecclesiasticus 22:3).
H. Many of the Apocryphal books contain errors about history, geography, and chronology.
V. BENEFITS OF READING THE APOCRYPHA
A. They contain historical information about the period of history known as “The Intertestamental Period.”
B. To be familiar with the books so you can discuss them with others.
C. Some of the information could be devotional in nature and applicable to how we should live our lives.
A. The Apocrypha primarily refers to the books that are accepted by the Catholics and that have been rejected by Protestants.
B. These books are not inspired and should not be part of the canon.
C. If you read them, read them with caution because they are the works of uninspired men.
WORD OF GOD
IMPORTANT FACTORS IN BIBLE TRANSLATION
Victor M. Eskew
A. Most people do not speak the Hebrew and Greek languages.
B. Therefore, translations of the Word of God are necessary.
C. The following are some interesting statistics about “The Worldwide Status of Bible Translation (2017).” (https://www.wycliffe.org/about/why)
1. About 7,000 languages are known to be in use today.
2. More than 1,400 languages have access to the New Testament and some portions of Scripture in their language.
3. More than 600 languages have the complete translated Bible.
4. Approximately 2,400 languages across 165 countries have active translation and linguistic development work happening right now.
5. More than 1,600 languages still need a Bible translation project to begin.
6. Up to 160 million people need Bible translation to begin in their language.
D. When a person is selecting a Bible translation, there are several questions that need to be asked and answered about each version. Let’s look at five of these in this lesson.
I. WHO CARRIED OUT THE WORK OF TRANSLATION?
A. Just one or two people
1. Moffatt’s Translation
2. The Phillip’s Translation
3. The Message
4. Two members of the church have made one-man translations of the New Testament:
a. Hugo McCord: “McCord’s New Testament Translation of the Everlasting Gospel.”
b. Harold Littrell: English Study Bible
B. A national leadership or missionary panel
1. This approach involves a team of individuals who work on the translation: translators, editors, literary reviewers, stylistic reviewers.
a. “In the dominant language of developed nations with strong Christian traditions most contemporary Bible translations are being carried out by a team of recognized scholars who carry out their work in the context of denominational, confessional or ecumenical organization” (“Contemporary Approaches to Bible Translation,” Roy E. Ciampa, p. 60).
b. “Just as important, or perhaps more importantly, the involvement of a large team of scholars who are recognized by various Christian constituents leads to a heightened perception of credibility to the translation project as a whole and may be crucial to the financial success of the translation project” (Contemporary Approaches, Ciampa, p. 60).
C. Knowing who translated a certain version is important for several reasons:
1. Did the person or persons have the educational expertise to make the translation?
2. Did the translators allow their religious beliefs to influence them in the translation process?